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Упражнения Present Perfect Past Perfect

Настоящее совершенное время и прошедшее совершенное время относятся к временам группы Perfect. Исходя из правил грамматики, употреблять их нужно в том случае, когда необходимо описать действие, которое произошло до указанной точки во времени. Как различить необходимость употребления того или иного времени?

Употребление Present и Past Perfect

Оба эти времени употребляются для того, чтобы охарактеризовать действие, произошедшее за некоторое время до указанного момента. В случае с Present этот момент будет в настоящем времени, в случае же с Past эта точка будет в прошлом.

Present Perfect, как правило, употребляется для описания:

  • действия, которое началось в прошлом и продолжается в настоящем;
  • действие, которое произошло до указанного момента (неопределенное время).

Примеры Present:

He has lived in this town for two years.

Peter has been to China twice.

Чтобы образовать Present Perfect, воспользуйтесь следующей формулой:

S (subject) + have (has) + PP (past participle)

Еще примеры Present Perfect:

My father has just gone to garage.

Kate has lived with grandparents for six years.

Have you finished your breakfast?

She hasn’t heard the new song of her favorite singer yet.

При употреблении Present Perfect используются общепринятые сокращения ‘’s’ и  ‘’ve’:

I’ve heard about it thousand times!

My father’s gone to garage.   

Прошедшее совершенное время (Past Perfect) употребляется для описания действия, которое произошло до обозначенного момента в прошлом.


When mother came home in the evening, children had already finished cleaning the flat.

Чтобы образовать это время, воспользуйтесь следующей формулой:

S (subject) + had + PP (past participle)

Еще примеры прошедшего совершенного времени:

1)      I went to Moscow in 1989 and 1993. 2) I turned 12 years old in 1995. – I had been to Moscow twice by the time I was 12 years old.

1)      My sister ate breakfast at 8 AM. 2) I got up at 8:30. – When I got up, my sister had already eaten her breakfast.

При употреблении этого времени используется общепринятое сокращение ‘’d’:

He’d traveled to 10 different countries by the time he was eighteen.

Present и Past Perfect. Упражнение 1

В данном упражнении вы должны выбрать правильную форму глагола, исходя из контекста представленных предложений.

I discovered that someone … the last apple when I opened my refrigerator.

  • had eaten
  • has eaten

Christina failed the exam because … .

  • hadn’t studied
  • hasn’t studied

Peter … with everyone in the party by the end of the evening.

  • had talked
  • has talked

Russian food until my journey to Russia last year.

  • has tasted
  • had tasted

They … their keys in the car that’s why they couldn’t drive away.

  • have locked
  • had locked

Students … new Chemistry teacher yet.

  • hadn’t met
  • haven’t met

Don’t pour your coffee on the flour – my sister … the flat.

  • had just cleaned
  • have just cleaned

Jane is working late again? She … overtime every week this month.

  • has worked
  • had worked

    Dane … Russian food.

  • has never had
  • had never had

We had a great time on our meeting last night but my friends … me since.

  • hadn’t called
  • haven’t called.

Present и Past Perfect. Упражнение 2

В данном упражнении необходимо дополнить предложения глаголом в скобках, поставленным в правильную форму.

  1. When I came to the parking I found that my Opel … (to steal).
  2. Peter … (to live) in London for two years before he got used to rainy weather.
  3. Kate … (to learn) Spanish for two years now.
  4. The aborigines were stunned because they … (never, to see) ships before.
  5. Security won’t let him in because he … (to forget) his member card.
  6. The security said: ‘I won’t let you in because you … (to forget) your member card’.
  7. … (to see) the new film by Scorsese?
  8. Girls … (to drink) a lot of Martini by the time the celebration ended.
  9. My friend were nervous because they … (to wait) for too long.
  10. He never gets up from the table before others … (to finish).
  11. It’s already 9 p.m. We … (to wait) for over half an hour.  If Jane doesn’t arrive in the next two minutes, we are going to leave.
  12. Did they hear John was fired last week? John … (to work) for that company for over than fifteen years.
  13. I … (to see) many pictures of the Westminster Palace before I went to Great Britain last year.
  14. Tom … (to climb) Mount Everest, … (to sail) around the world. He is very adventurous person.
  15. Before my trip to Beijing three years ago, I … (never, to be) to China.



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